E gypt is the offspring of the Nile. The fertile mud deposited by the cyclical floods of the river made possible the survival of the large population that gave birth, more than five thousand years ago, to one of the most extraordinary civilizations in History. The ancient Egyptians made good use of this gift of Nature building an intricate irrigation system and establishing an efficient management of human and material resources. Under a theocratic sociopolitical regime, with the deified Pharaoh at its summit, they invented hieroglyphic script, attained vast astronomic and mathematical knowledge, as well as great artistic skills, and developed the advanced techniques that led to the construction of colossal pyramids.
The vivifying waters of the Nile that made possible these achievements are a clear proof of the decisive influence of geography in the ways of life and the development of human societies.
The Egyptian civilization survived till the Roman occupation (30 AD). In the seventh century, riding the expansive tide of Islam, the Arabs founded Cairo, and since then the Egyptian population is chiefly Muslim. In the 21st century, father Nile has to feed more than eighty million people.